June 06, 2006:

[achtung! kunst] *mao-market* : Chameleon Mao, the Face of Tiananmen Square

nyt, May 28, 2006
Chameleon Mao, the Face of Tiananmen Square

FEW images created in the last century are as recognizable as the
official portrait of Mao that looms over Tiananmen Square in Beijing.

For decades, the 15-by-20-foot oil painting has served as a national
icon. This is the same image that, in the 1960's and 70's, was widely
reproduced and hung near the entrances to millions of homes, schools,
factories and government buildings. During the Cultural Revolution, when
Mao was raised to cult status, it seemed as if the entire nation had set
about drawing a Mao portrait, or at least honoring one. If Mao's Little
Red Book was the national bible, Mao's official portrait was the
national stamp.

And while people in China seem to have lost some affection for Mao, and
even protested in 1989 by splattering his Tiananmen portrait with paint,
his image still represents something indelible and intangible, experts say.

"This is the most important painting in China," said Wu Hung, an art
historian at the University of Chicago. "This is not an artistic
judgment. But look at how many people have seen this image over the last

Mao's image may also be considered China's first and only global brand.
Even though China is a rising economic power, it still does not have a
BMW or a Coca-Cola to sell to the rest of the world.

But it does have Mao — a kind of George Washington, James Dean and Che
Guevara wrapped in one; a historic and pop figure who continues to be
hip and fashionable, even when Communism and the Communist Party are not.

And so it is no surprise that a firestorm erupted in China a little over
a week ago after a state-controlled Beijing auction house wheeled out an
old official portrait of Mao, owned by a Chinese-American, and said it
would sell the piece to the highest bidder on June 3.

The Huachen Auction Company said the small portrait, dating from the
1950's or 60's, was painted by Zhang Zhenshi, one of Mao's first
official portrait makers and the artist credited with the model for the
painting that hangs in Tiananmen Square.

After critics on the Internet in China lashed out at the planned sale,
Huachen withdrew the item, saying the government had intervened and
"suggested" the work be placed in a national museum.

But the controversy raised some intriguing questions. Who actually
painted Mao's official portrait? And why is it still up in the square,
when many Chinese seem more eager to buy Gucci bags than Mao suits?

Some of the answers can be found in Professor Wu's book "Remaking
Beijing," which says Mao's image, like the socialist state, was actually
created by committee.

Nor was it the first such portrait to hang in Beijing. A large one of
Sun Yat-sen, the founder of the Chinese Republic, was raised in the
square after his death in 1925. And the image of Chiang Kai-shek, the
Nationalist leader, was hung there in 1945.

Mao's portrait appeared in 1949, after the Communists assumed power.
First, a hastily sketched portrait was hung in February. Then, on Oct.
1, when Mao declared the founding of the People's Republic of China from
the rostrum at Tiananmen Gate, an official portrait, based on a
photograph, showed Mao wearing an octagonal cap and coarse woolen jacket.

The cap-wearing Mao didn't last long. A year later, 30 artists were
asked to create a new image, and Mr. Zhang, a teacher at the Beijing Art
Institute, was named official portrait maker.

From 1950 to about 1964, Mr. Zhang painted Mao's Tiananmen portrait,
based on official photographs, often with the help of artists who were
supposed to be anonymous.

The portrait evolved over time. Mao in an army cap gave way to Mao's
sideways glance, which was replaced by the now standard Mao frontal
pose, with his eyes peering directly at viewers. An early piece was
criticized because Mao appeared to be looking away from — possibly
ignoring — the masses.

Historians say that in the 1950's or 60's Mr. Zhang created the standard
image, based on a photograph of Mao in his trademark gray suit. And by
1967, when the Cultural Revolution was under way, a final tweak had been
added: the painting showed both of Mao's ears, rather than just one,
proof that he was listening to all the people and not just a select few.

The artists, Mr. Wu said, were not supposed to be creative, but merely
render the image from carefully selected photographs. "If you emphasized
the artist, then it would be a work of art," Professor Wu said. "That
was not the intention."

Over the years, the painted Mao has aged, appeared grim, taken on a
fatherly look, and even shown a faint smile. At some point the shadow on
his face was reduced.

Since 1949 there have only been four official portrait artists but many
unofficial contributors, like Wang Qizhi, now in his late 70's, who said
in an interview last week that he had worked for over 20 years on Mao's
portraits, leaving few records.

"The old canvas was reused by putting on white paint to cover the
previous painting," Mr. Wang said. "One piece of canvas was used five or
six times. When it became too thick to paint, people pulled off the
canvas and put on a new one."

Apparently, Mao's colorful oil portrait came down only once, briefly,
after his death in 1976, when it was replaced by a huge black and white
photograph, a sign of mourning. Why hasn't the image come down since?
Some believe that such a move would signal the demise of the party.
Others say the portrait is a cultural relic.

"It's a very complex image," said Professor Wu, who grew up near
Beijing. "It has different meanings to different people. To the party,
it symbolizes the party and the nation's founding. But to a lot of
people it symbolizes China, or it has very personal memories."

That is one reason Mao's official image has changed mostly in subtle
ways. Beyond Tiananmen Square, however, artists have experimented more
freely, and after Mao's death, some played with his once-sacred image.
Wang Keping attracted international attention in 1979 by carving a
wooden image of a Buddha-faced Mao called "Idol." In the 1980's, Wang
Guangyi dissected Mao by putting him behind bars, or a large grid. Li
Shan put a flower and lipstick on him; Gao Qiang made him look sickly,
swimming in a blood-red Yangtze River.

But Mao's defenders are never far behind. Mr. Zhang's model Mao is no
longer up for auction, thanks to government intervention. And several
weeks ago, when Mr. Gao's sickly Mao was raised in an exhibition space
in Beijing 's trendy Dashanzi area, the police showed up. They had the
image removed. Officially, there's still only one Mao, and he's still
the national icon.



Recommended Reading
1. "Remaking Beijing : Tiananmen Square and the Creation of a Political
Space," by Wu Hung.



with kind regards,

Matthias Arnold (Art-Eastasia list)



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